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Digital library


‘ What should I expect from a biopsy test?

‘ What type of kidney cancer do I have?

‘ What is the stage of the disease?

‘ What are the treatment choices? Which do you recommend? Why?

‘ What are the risks and possible side effects of each treatment?

‘ What are the chances that the treatment will be successful?

' What new treatments are being studied in clinical trials?

' How long will treatment last?

' Will I have to stay in the hospital?

' Will treatment affect my normal activities? If so, for how long?

' What is the treatment likely to cost?

•  mouth sores, dry mouth, bleeding gums

•  pruritus (itching)

•  sexuality

•  sleep disorders

Anxiety, depression, loss, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexuality, and substance abuse are all possible emotional side-effects. Nutrition and eating before, during, and after a treatment can also be of concern. Other complications of coping with cancer include fever and pain.

Clinical trials

As of 2005, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) listed 73 clinical trials in place across the United States studying new types of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, new drugs and drug combinations, biological therapies, ways of combining various types of treatment for kidney cancer, side effect reduction, and improving quality of life. Immunostimulatory agents and gene-therapy techniques that modify tumor cells, antiangiogenesis compounds, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and differentiating agents are aU being investigated as possible therapies. The reader may consult <Http://ClinicalTrials. gov> and a doctor for a list of kidney cancer clinical trials.


The exact cause of kidney cancer is not known, so it is not possible to prevent all cases. However, because a strong association between kidney cancer and tobacco has been shown, avoiding tobacco is the best way to lower one’s risk of developing this cancer. Using care when working with cancer-causing agents such as asbestos and cadmium and eating a well-balanced diet may also help prevent kidney cancer.

See also Renal pelvis tumors; von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.



Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD, editors. “Renal Cell Carcinoma (Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of the Kidney).” Section 17, Chapter 233 In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Lahoratories,



Branch, H., G. Weirich, B. Klein, et al. “VHL Mutations in Renal Cell Cancer: Does Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene Make a Difference?” Toxicology Letters 151 (June 15, 2004): 301-310.

Dutcher, J. P. “Immunotherapy: Are We Making a Difference?”

Current Opinion in Urology September 2000:435-9.

Godley, P. A., and K. I. Ataga. “Renal Cell Carcinoma.”

Current Opinion in Oncology May 2000: 260.

Griffiths, T. R., and J. K. Mellon. “Evolving

Immunotherapeutic Strategies in Bladder and Renal Cancer. ” Postgraduate Medical Journal 80 (June 2004): 320-327.

Jennens, R. R., M. A. Rosenthal, G. J. Lindeman, and M. Michael. “Complete Radiological and Metabolic Response of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to SU5416 (Semaxanib) in a Patient with Probable von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome. ” Urologic Oncology 22 (May-June 2004): 193-196.

Lam, J. S., O. Svarts, and A. J. Pantuck. “Changing Concepts in the Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma.” European Urology 45 (June 2004): 692-705.

Lotan, Y., D. A. Duchene, J. A. Cadeddu, et al. “Changing

Management of Organ-Confined Renal Masses. ” Journal of Endourology 18 (April 2004): 263-268.

Moon, T. D., F. T. Lee, Jr., S. P. Hedican, et al. “Laparoscopic Cryoablation under Sonographic Guidance for the Treatment of Small Renal Tumors.” Journal of Endourology 18 (June 2004): 436440.


American Cancer Society (National Headquarters). 1599 Clifton Rd. ME, Atlanta, GA 30329. (800) 227-2345. <Http://www. cancer. org>.

American Foundation for Urologic Disease. E-mail: Admin@afud. org.

American Urological Association. 1120N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21201. (410) 727-1100. <Http:// www. auanet. org/patient_info/fmd_urologist/index. cfm>.

Cancer Research Institute (National Headquarters). 681 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10022. (800) 992-2623. <Http:// www. cancerresearch. org>.

Kidney Cancer Association. 1234 Sherman Ave., Suite 203, Evanston, IL 60202-1375. (800) 850-9132. <Http:// www. kidneycancerassociation. org>.

National Cancer Institute (NCI). 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 10A16, Bethesda, MD 20892. (800) 422-6237. <Http://www. nci. nih. gov>.

National Kidney Cancer Association. 1234 Sherman Ave.,

Suite 203, Evanston, IL 60202-1375. (800) 850-9132.

National Kidney Foundation. 30 East 33rd St., New York, NY 10016. (800) 622-9010. <Http://www. kidney. org>.


American Cancer Society (ACS). Cancer Eacts & Eigures 2004. <Http://www. cancer. org/downloads/STT/ CAFF_finalPWSecured. pdf>.

Lata Cherath, Ph. D.

Laura Ruth, Ph. D.

Rebecca Frey, Ph. D.










ńęŕ÷ŕňü dle 12.1

Literatura: Encyclopedia of Cancer